Uterine Anomalies and Hysterosalpingography

Uterine anomalies refer to structural abnormalities in the uterus that may affect a woman’s reproductive health. These anomalies can be congenital, meaning they are present at birth, or acquired later in life due to various factors. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a diagnostic procedure that involves X-ray imaging of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of a contrast material. It is commonly used to evaluate the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes, and it can provide valuable information in cases of uterine anomalies.

Here are some common uterine anomalies and how they may be visualized with HSG:

  1. Uterine Septum: A uterine septum is a wall of tissue that divides the uterine cavity. HSG can help visualize the presence of a septum and its impact on the uterine structure.
  2. Bicornuate Uterus: In a bicornuate uterus, the uterus is divided into two distinct horns. HSG can show the characteristic heart-shaped appearance of the uterus.
  3. Unicornuate Uterus: A unicornuate uterus is a malformation where only one half of the uterus develops. HSG can demonstrate the reduced size of the uterus.
  4. Didelphic Uterus: This anomaly involves the presence of two separate uteri, each with its own cervix. HSG can reveal the presence of two distinct uterine cavities.
  5. Arcuate Uterus: An arcuate uterus is characterized by a slight indentation at the top of the uterine cavity. HSG may show a mildly altered uterine shape.

Hysterosalpingography is particularly useful in identifying structural abnormalities within the uterine cavity and assessing the patency of the fallopian tubes. The contrast material helps highlight the uterine contour and can reveal any irregularities or blockages in the fallopian tubes that may impact fertility.

It’s important to note that while HSG is a valuable diagnostic tool, additional imaging methods such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be required for a more comprehensive evaluation of uterine anomalies. Additionally, the management of uterine anomalies may involve surgical intervention, especially if they are associated with reproductive difficulties or pregnancy complications.